Computer Mouse computer mouse
A bus mouse used a dedicated interface card for connection to an IBM PC or compatible computer. To transmit their input, typical cabled mice use a thin electrical cord terminating in a standard connector, such as RS-232C, PS/2, ADB, or USB. Cordless mice instead transmit data via infrared radiation or radio , although many such cordless interfaces are themselves connected through the aforementioned wired serial buses. The so-called roller bar mouse is positioned snugly in front of the keyboard, thus allowing bi-manual accessibility. According to Roger Bates, a hardware designer under English, the term also came about because the cursor on the screen was for some unknown reason referred to as “CAT” and was seen by the team as if it would be chasing the new desktop device. “Gigabyte launches a gaming mouse with adjustable weights and 16,000 dpi sensor
- Due to their similarity to the WIMP desktop metaphor interface for which mice were originally designed, and to their own tabletop game origins, computer strategy games are most commonly played with mice.
- Games using mice for input are so popular that many manufacturers make mice specifically for gaming.
- This two-bit encoding per dimension had the property that only one bit of the two would change at a time, like a Gray code or Johnson counter, so that the transitions would not be misinterpreted when asynchronously sampled.
The Mario Paint game in particular used the mouse’s capabilities as did its successor on the N64. Sega released official mice for their Genesis/Mega Drive, Saturn and Dreamcast consoles. Sony released an official mouse product for the PlayStation console, included one along with the Linux for PlayStation 2 kit, as well as allowing owners to use virtually any USB mouse with the PS2, PS3, and PS4. Nintendo’s Wii also had this added on in a later software update, retained on the Wii U.
The mouse was a simple optomechanical device, and the decoding circuitry was all in the main computer. Mouse use in DOS applications became more common after the introduction of the Microsoft Mouse, largely because Microsoft provided an open standard for communication between applications and mouse driver software. Thus, any application written to use the Microsoft standard could use a mouse with a driver that implements the same API, even if the mouse hardware itself was incompatible with Microsoft’s.
Battery powered, wireless optical mice flash the LED intermittently to save power, and only glow steadily when movement is detected. Another type of mechanical mouse, the “analog mouse” , uses potentiometers rather than encoder wheels, and is typically designed to be plug compatible with an analog joystick. The “Color Mouse”, originally marketed by RadioShack for their Color Computer (but also usable on MS-DOS machines equipped with analog joystick ports, provided the software accepted joystick input) was the best-known example. The trackball, a related pointing device, was invented in 1946 by Ralph Benjamin as part of a post-World War II-era fire-control radar plotting system called the Comprehensive Display System . Benjamin’s project used analog computers to calculate the future position of target aircraft based on several initial input points provided by a user with a joystick. Benjamin felt that a more elegant input device was needed and invented what they called a “roller ball” for this purpose.
Late-1980s era home computers such as the Amiga used this to allow computer games with two players interacting on the same computer . The same idea is sometimes used in collaborative software, e.g. to simulate a whiteboard that multiple users can draw on without passing a single mouse around. Microsoft Windows, since Windows 98, has supported multiple simultaneous pointing devices. Because Windows only provides a single screen cursor, using more than one device at the same time requires cooperation of users or applications designed for multiple input devices. This control system resembles that of aircraft control sticks, where pulling back causes pitch up and pushing forward causes pitch down; computer joysticks also typically emulate this control-configuration. The ball mouse replaced the external wheels with a single ball that could rotate in any direction.
For simple software, when the mouse starts to move, the software will count the number of “counts” or “mickeys” received from the mouse and will move the cursor across the screen by that number of pixels . When the movement of the mouse passes the value set for some threshold, the software will start to move the cursor faster, with a greater rate factor. Usually, the user can set the value of the second rate factor by changing the “acceleration” setting. Mickeys per second is a unit of measurement for the speed and movement direction of a computer mouse, where direction is often expressed as “horizontal” versus “vertical” mickey count.
Cordless Or Wireless
Weighting 465 g, the device with a total height of about 7 cm came in a c. 12 cm diameter hemispherical injection-molded thermoplastic casing featuring one central push button. Since around the late 1990s, the three-button scrollmouse has become the de facto standard. Users most commonly employ the second button to invoke a contextual menu in the computer’s software user interface, which contains options specifically tailored to the interface element over which the mouse cursor currently sits.
By 1982, the Xerox 8010 was probably the best-known computer with a mouse. Hawley, who manufactured mice for Xerox, stated that “Practically, I have the market all to myself right now”; a Hawley mouse cost $415. In 1982, Logitech introduced the P4 Mouse at the Comdex trade show in Las Vegas, its first hardware mouse. That same year Microsoft made the decision to make the MS-DOS program Microsoft Word mouse-compatible, and developed the first PC-compatible mouse. Microsoft’s mouse shipped in 1983, thus beginning the Microsoft Hardware division of the company.
This new design incorporated a single hard rubber mouseball and three buttons, and remained a common design until the mainstream adoption of the scroll-wheel mouse during the 1990s. In 1985, René Sommer added a microprocessor to Nicoud’s and Guignard’s design. Through this innovation, Sommer is credited with inventing a significant component of the mouse, which made it more “intelligent”; though optical mice from Mouse Systems had incorporated microprocessors by 1984. The relative movements of the mouse on the surface are applied to the position of the pointer on the screen, which signals the point where actions of the user take place, so hand movements are replicated by the pointer. Clicking or pointing can select files, programs or actions from a list of names, or through small images called “icons” and other elements. For example, a text file might be represented by a picture of a paper notebook and clicking while the cursor points at this icon might cause a text editing program to open the file in a window.