Computer Mouse computer mouse
Perpendicular chopper wheels housed inside the mouse’s body chopped beams of light on the way to light sensors, thus detecting in their turn the motion of the ball. This variant of the mouse resembled an inverted trackball and became the predominant form used with personal computers throughout the 1980s and 1990s. The Xerox PARC group also settled on the modern technique of using both hands to type on a full-size keyboard and grabbing the mouse when required. A mouse-related controller called the SpaceBall has a ball placed above the work surface that can easily be gripped.
When the ball was rolled, the pickup discs spun and contacts on their outer rim made periodic contact with wires, producing pulses of output with each movement of the ball. By counting the pulses, the physical movement of the ball could be determined. A digital computer calculated the tracks and sent the resulting data to other ships in a task force using pulse-code modulation radio signals. Modern computer mice took form at the École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne under the inspiration of Professor Jean-Daniel Nicoud and at the hands of engineer and watchmaker André Guignard.
The popularity of wireless mice without cords makes the resemblance less obvious. Signals XA and XB in quadrature convey X-direction motion, while YA and YB convey Y-dimension motion; here the pointer is shown drawing a small curve. Inspired by PARC’s Alto, the Lilith, a computer which had been developed by a team around Niklaus Wirth at ETH Zürich between 1978 and 1980, provided a mouse as well. “Connect a Bluetooth device that does not have or require a transceiver”. Silicon Graphics SpaceBall model 1003 , allowing manipulation of objects with six degrees of freedom. The third marketed version of an integrated mouse shipped as a part of a computer and intended for personal computer navigation came with the Xerox 8010 Star in 1981.
In 2008, Motion4U introduced its “OptiBurst” system using IR tracking for use as a Maya plugin. The earliest optical mice detected movement on pre-printed mousepad surfaces, whereas the modern LED optical mouse works on most opaque diffuse surfaces; it is usually unable to detect movement on specular surfaces like polished stone. Laser diodes provide good resolution and precision, improving performance on opaque specular surfaces. Later, more surface-independent optical mice use an optoelectronic sensor (essentially, a tiny low-resolution video camera) to take successive images of the surface on which the mouse operates.
- A mouse-related controller called the SpaceBall has a ball placed above the work surface that can easily be gripped.
- The Xerox Alto was one of the first computers designed for individual use in 1973 and is regarded as the first modern computer to use a mouse.
- While primarily a motion-sensing device , Wii Remote can also detect its spatial position by comparing the distance and position of the lights from the IR emitter using its integrated IR camera .
- Probably the best known example would be 3Dconnexion (“Logitech’s SpaceMouse”) from the early 1990s.
For simple software, when the mouse starts to move, the software will count the number of “counts” or “mickeys” received from the mouse and will move the cursor across the screen by that number of pixels . When the movement of the mouse passes the value set for some threshold, the software will start to move the cursor faster, with a greater rate factor. Usually, the user can set the value of the second rate factor by changing the “acceleration” setting. Mickeys per second is a unit of measurement for the speed and movement direction of a computer mouse, where direction is often expressed as “horizontal” versus “vertical” mickey count.
Cordless Or Wireless
FPSs naturally lend themselves to separate and simultaneous control of the player’s movement and aim, and on computers this has traditionally been achieved with a combination of keyboard and mouse. Players use the X-axis of the mouse for looking left and right, and the Y-axis for looking up and down; the keyboard is used for movement and supplemental inputs. Engelbart’s original mouse did not require a mousepad; the mouse had two large wheels which could roll on virtually any surface. However, most subsequent mechanical mice starting with the steel roller ball mouse have required a mousepad for optimal performance.
Inertial And Gyroscopic Mice
However, the mouse remained relatively obscure until the appearance of the Macintosh 128K (which included an updated version of the single-button Lisa Mouse) in 1984, and of the Amiga 1000 and the Atari ST in 1985. After id Software’s commercial hit of Doom, which did not support vertical aiming, competitor Bungie’s Marathon became the first first-person shooter to support using the mouse to aim up and down. The “invert” feature actually made the mouse behave in a manner that users now regard as non-inverted . Soon after, id Software released Quake, which introduced the invert feature as users now know it.
In 1964, Bill English joined ARC, where he helped Engelbart build the first mouse prototype. They christened the device the mouse as early models had a cord attached to the rear part of the device which looked like a tail, and in turn resembled the common mouse. According to Roger Bates, a hardware designer under English, another reason for choosing this name was because the cursor on the screen was also referred to as “CAT” at this time. By 1963, Engelbart had already established a research lab at SRI, the Augmentation Research Center , to pursue his objective of developing both hardware and software computer technology to “augment” human intelligence.